Commit 6eda3f13 authored by Ondřej Zajíček's avatar Ondřej Zajíček

Documentation (and minor fixes) for BGP graceful restart.

parent 0c791f87
......@@ -157,6 +157,9 @@ options. The most important ones are:
<tag>-f</tag>
run bird in foreground.
<tag>-R</tag>
apply graceful restart recovery after start.
</descrip>
<p>BIRD writes messages about its work to log files or syslog (according to config).
......@@ -187,6 +190,7 @@ configuration, but it is generally easy -- BIRD needs just the
standard library, privileges to read the config file and create the
control socket and the CAP_NET_* capabilities.
<chapt>About routing tables
<p>BIRD has one or more routing tables which may or may not be
......@@ -242,6 +246,20 @@ using comparison and ordering). Minor advantage is that routes are
shown sorted in <cf/show route/, minor disadvantage is that it is
slightly more computationally expensive.
<sect>Graceful restart
<p>When BIRD is started after restart or crash, it repopulates routing tables in
an uncoordinated manner, like after clean start. This may be impractical in some
cases, because if the forwarding plane (i.e. kernel routing tables) remains
intact, then its synchronization with BIRD would temporarily disrupt packet
forwarding until protocols converge. Graceful restart is a mechanism that could
help with this issue. Generally, it works by starting protocols and letting them
repopulate routing tables while deferring route propagation until protocols
acknowledge their convergence. Note that graceful restart behavior have to be
configured for all relevant protocols and requires protocol-specific support
(currently implemented for Kernel and BGP protocols), it is activated for
particular boot by option <cf/-R/.
<chapt>Configuration
......@@ -371,6 +389,12 @@ protocol rip {
would accept IPv6 routes only). Such behavior was default in
older versions of BIRD.
<tag>graceful restart wait <m/number/</tag>
During graceful restart recovery, BIRD waits for convergence of routing
protocols. This option allows to specify a timeout for the recovery to
prevent waiting indefinitely if some protocols cannot converge. Default:
240 seconds.
<tag>timeformat route|protocol|base|log "<m/format1/" [<m/limit/ "<m/format2/"]</tag>
This option allows to specify a format of date/time used by
BIRD. The first argument specifies for which purpose such
......@@ -1493,6 +1517,8 @@ extended communities
(RFC 4360<htmlurl url="ftp://ftp.rfc-editor.org/in-notes/rfc4360.txt">),
route reflectors
(RFC 4456<htmlurl url="ftp://ftp.rfc-editor.org/in-notes/rfc4456.txt">),
graceful restart
(RFC 4724<htmlurl url="ftp://ftp.rfc-editor.org/in-notes/rfc4724.txt">),
multiprotocol extensions
(RFC 4760<htmlurl url="ftp://ftp.rfc-editor.org/in-notes/rfc4760.txt">),
4B AS numbers
......@@ -1502,9 +1528,7 @@ and 4B AS numbers in extended communities
For IPv6, it uses the standard multiprotocol extensions defined in
RFC 2283<htmlurl url="ftp://ftp.rfc-editor.org/in-notes/rfc2283.txt">
including changes described in the
latest draft<htmlurl url="ftp://ftp.rfc-editor.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-idr-bgp4-multiprotocol-v2-05.txt">
RFC 4760<htmlurl url="ftp://ftp.rfc-editor.org/in-notes/rfc4760.txt">
and applied to IPv6 according to
RFC 2545<htmlurl url="ftp://ftp.rfc-editor.org/in-notes/rfc2545.txt">.
......@@ -1716,6 +1740,26 @@ for each neighbor using the following configuration parameters:
capability and accepts such requests. Even when disabled, BIRD
can send route refresh requests. Default: on.
<tag>graceful restart <m/switch/|aware</tag>
When a BGP speaker restarts or crashes, neighbors will discard all
received paths from the speaker, which disrupts packet forwarding even
when the forwarding plane of the speaker remains intact. RFC 4724
specifies an optional graceful restart mechanism to alleviate this
issue. This option controls the mechanism. It has three states:
Disabled, when no support is provided. Aware, when the graceful restart
support is announced and the support for restarting neighbors is
provided, but no local graceful restart is allowed (i.e. receiving-only
role). Enabled, when the full graceful restart support is provided
(i.e. both restarting and receiving role). Note that proper support for
local graceful restart requires also configuration of other protocols.
Default: aware.
<tag>graceful restart time <m/number/</tag>
The restart time is announced in the BGP graceful restart capability
and specifies how long the neighbor would wait for the BGP session to
re-establish after a restart before deleting stale routes. Default:
120 seconds.
<tag>interpret communities <m/switch/</tag> RFC 1997 demands
that BGP speaker should process well-known communities like
no-export (65535, 65281) or no-advertise (65535, 65282). For
......@@ -2063,25 +2107,36 @@ overcome using another routing table and the pipe protocol.
<sect1>Configuration
<p><descrip>
<tag>persist <m/switch/</tag> Tell BIRD to leave all its routes in the
routing tables when it exits (instead of cleaning them up).
<tag>scan time <m/number/</tag> Time in seconds between two consecutive scans of the
kernel routing table.
<tag>learn <m/switch/</tag> Enable learning of routes added to the kernel
routing tables by other routing daemons or by the system administrator.
This is possible only on systems which support identification of route
authorship.
<tag>device routes <m/switch/</tag> Enable export of device
routes to the kernel routing table. By default, such routes
are rejected (with the exception of explicitly configured
device routes from the static protocol) regardless of the
export filter to protect device routes in kernel routing table
(managed by OS itself) from accidental overwriting or erasing.
<tag>kernel table <m/number/</tag> Select which kernel table should
this particular instance of the Kernel protocol work with. Available
only on systems supporting multiple routing tables.
<tag>persist <m/switch/</tag>
Tell BIRD to leave all its routes in the routing tables when it exits
(instead of cleaning them up).
<tag>scan time <m/number/</tag>
Time in seconds between two consecutive scans of the kernel routing
table.
<tag>learn <m/switch/</tag>
Enable learning of routes added to the kernel routing tables by other
routing daemons or by the system administrator. This is possible only on
systems which support identification of route authorship.
<tag>device routes <m/switch/</tag>
Enable export of device routes to the kernel routing table. By default,
such routes are rejected (with the exception of explicitly configured
device routes from the static protocol) regardless of the export filter
to protect device routes in kernel routing table (managed by OS itself)
from accidental overwriting or erasing.
<tag>kernel table <m/number/</tag>
Select which kernel table should this particular instance of the Kernel
protocol work with. Available only on systems supporting multiple
routing tables.
<tag>graceful restart <m/switch/</tag>
Participate in graceful restart recovery. If this option is enabled and
a graceful restart recovery is active, the Kernel protocol will defer
synchronization of routing tables until the end of the recovery. Note
that import of kernel routes to BIRD is not affected.
</descrip>
<sect1>Attributes
......
......@@ -51,6 +51,8 @@ static char *c_states[] = { "HUNGRY", "???", "HAPPY", "FLUSHING" };
static void proto_flush_loop(void *);
static void proto_shutdown_loop(struct timer *);
static void proto_rethink_goal(struct proto *p);
static void proto_want_export_up(struct proto *p);
static void proto_fell_down(struct proto *p);
static char *proto_state_name(struct proto *p);
static void
......@@ -151,21 +153,20 @@ extern pool *rt_table_pool;
* @t: routing table to connect to
* @stats: per-table protocol statistics
*
* This function creates a connection between the protocol instance @p
* and the routing table @t, making the protocol hear all changes in
* the table.
* This function creates a connection between the protocol instance @p and the
* routing table @t, making the protocol hear all changes in the table.
*
* The announce hook is linked in the protocol ahook list and, if the
* protocol accepts routes, also in the table ahook list. Announce
* hooks are allocated from the routing table resource pool, they are
* unlinked from the table ahook list after the protocol went down,
* (in proto_schedule_flush()) and they are automatically freed after the
* protocol is flushed (in proto_fell_down()).
* The announce hook is linked in the protocol ahook list. Announce hooks are
* allocated from the routing table resource pool and when protocol accepts
* routes also in the table ahook list. The are linked to the table ahook list
* and unlinked from it depending on export_state (in proto_want_export_up() and
* proto_want_export_down()) and they are automatically freed after the protocol
* is flushed (in proto_fell_down()).
*
* Unless you want to listen to multiple routing tables (as the Pipe
* protocol does), you needn't to worry about this function since the
* connection to the protocol's primary routing table is initialized
* automatically by the core code.
* Unless you want to listen to multiple routing tables (as the Pipe protocol
* does), you needn't to worry about this function since the connection to the
* protocol's primary routing table is initialized automatically by the core
* code.
*/
struct announce_hook *
proto_add_announce_hook(struct proto *p, struct rtable *t, struct proto_stats *stats)
......@@ -183,7 +184,7 @@ proto_add_announce_hook(struct proto *p, struct rtable *t, struct proto_stats *s
h->next = p->ahooks;
p->ahooks = h;
if (p->rt_notify && (p->export_state == ES_READY))
if (p->rt_notify && (p->export_state != ES_DOWN))
add_tail(&t->hooks, &h->n);
return h;
}
......@@ -659,16 +660,59 @@ proto_rethink_goal(struct proto *p)
}
/**
* DOC: Graceful restart recovery
*
* Graceful restart of a router is a process when the routing plane (e.g. BIRD)
* restarts but both the forwarding plane (e.g kernel routing table) and routing
* neighbors keep proper routes, and therefore uninterrupted packet forwarding
* is maintained.
*
* BIRD implements graceful restart recovery by deferring export of routes to
* protocols until routing tables are refilled with the expected content. After
* start, protocols generate routes as usual, but routes are not propagated to
* them, until protocols report that they generated all routes. After that,
* graceful restart recovery is finished and the export (and the initial feed)
* to protocols is enabled.
*
* When graceful restart recovery need is detected during initialization, then
* enabled protocols are marked with @gr_recovery flag before start. Such
* protocols then decide how to proceed with graceful restart, participation is
* voluntary. Protocols could lock the recovery by proto_graceful_restart_lock()
* (stored in @gr_lock flag), which means that they want to postpone the end of
* the recovery until they converge and then unlock it. They also could set
* @gr_wait before advancing to %PS_UP, which means that the core should defer
* route export to that protocol until the end of the recovery. This should be
* done by protocols that expect their neigbors to keep the proper routes
* (kernel table, BGP sessions with BGP graceful restart capability).
*
* The graceful restart recovery is finished when either all graceful restart
* locks are unlocked or when graceful restart wait timer fires.
*
*/
static void graceful_restart_done(struct timer *t UNUSED);
static void proto_want_export_up(struct proto *p);
static void graceful_restart_done(struct timer *t);
/**
* graceful_restart_recovery - request initial graceful restart recovery
*
* Called by the platform initialization code if the need for recovery
* after graceful restart is detected during boot. Have to be called
* before protos_commit().
*/
void
graceful_restart_recovery(void)
{
graceful_restart_state = GRS_INIT;
}
/**
* graceful_restart_init - initialize graceful restart
*
* When graceful restart recovery was requested, the function starts an active
* phase of the recovery and initializes graceful restart wait timer. The
* function have to be called after protos_commit().
*/
void
graceful_restart_init(void)
{
......@@ -689,6 +733,15 @@ graceful_restart_init(void)
tm_start(gr_wait_timer, config->gr_wait);
}
/**
* graceful_restart_done - finalize graceful restart
*
* When there are no locks on graceful restart, the functions finalizes the
* graceful restart recovery. Protocols postponing route export until the end of
* the recovery are awakened and the export to them is enabled. All other
* related state is cleared. The function is also called when the graceful
* restart wait timer fires (but there are still some locks).
*/
static void
graceful_restart_done(struct timer *t UNUSED)
{
......@@ -727,7 +780,19 @@ graceful_restart_show_status(void)
cli_msg(-24, " Wait timer is %d/%d", tm_remains(gr_wait_timer), config->gr_wait);
}
/* Just from start hook */
/**
* proto_graceful_restart_lock - lock graceful restart by protocol
* @p: protocol instance
*
* This function allows a protocol to postpone the end of graceful restart
* recovery until it converges. The lock is removed when the protocol calls
* proto_graceful_restart_unlock() or when the protocol is stopped.
*
* The function have to be called during the initial phase of graceful restart
* recovery and only for protocols that are part of graceful restart (i.e. their
* @gr_recovery is set), which means it should be called from protocol start
* hooks.
*/
void
proto_graceful_restart_lock(struct proto *p)
{
......@@ -741,6 +806,13 @@ proto_graceful_restart_lock(struct proto *p)
graceful_restart_locks++;
}
/**
* proto_graceful_restart_unlock - unlock graceful restart by protocol
* @p: protocol instance
*
* This function unlocks a lock from proto_graceful_restart_lock(). It is also
* automatically called when the lock holding protocol went down.
*/
void
proto_graceful_restart_unlock(struct proto *p)
{
......@@ -867,29 +939,6 @@ protos_build(void)
proto_flush_event->hook = proto_flush_loop;
proto_shutdown_timer = tm_new(proto_pool);
proto_shutdown_timer->hook = proto_shutdown_loop;
proto_shutdown_timer = tm_new(proto_pool);
proto_shutdown_timer->hook = proto_shutdown_loop;
}
static void
proto_fell_down(struct proto *p)
{
DBG("Protocol %s down\n", p->name);
u32 all_routes = p->stats.imp_routes + p->stats.filt_routes;
if (all_routes != 0)
log(L_ERR "Protocol %s is down but still has %d routes", p->name, all_routes);
bzero(&p->stats, sizeof(struct proto_stats));
proto_free_ahooks(p);
if (! p->proto->multitable)
rt_unlock_table(p->table);
if (p->proto->cleanup)
p->proto->cleanup(p);
proto_rethink_goal(p);
}
static void
......@@ -1066,6 +1115,10 @@ proto_request_feeding(struct proto *p)
{
ASSERT(p->proto_state == PS_UP);
/* Do nothing if we are still waiting for feeding */
if (p->export_state == ES_DOWN)
return;
/* If we are already feeding, we want to restart it */
if (p->export_state == ES_FEEDING)
{
......@@ -1220,6 +1273,27 @@ proto_falling_down(struct proto *p)
proto_graceful_restart_unlock(p);
}
static void
proto_fell_down(struct proto *p)
{
DBG("Protocol %s down\n", p->name);
u32 all_routes = p->stats.imp_routes + p->stats.filt_routes;
if (all_routes != 0)
log(L_ERR "Protocol %s is down but still has %d routes", p->name, all_routes);
bzero(&p->stats, sizeof(struct proto_stats));
proto_free_ahooks(p);
if (! p->proto->multitable)
rt_unlock_table(p->table);
if (p->proto->cleanup)
p->proto->cleanup(p);
proto_rethink_goal(p);
}
/**
* proto_notify_state - notify core about protocol state change
......
......@@ -1110,6 +1110,21 @@ rt_examine(rtable *t, ip_addr prefix, int pxlen, struct proto *p, struct filter
return v > 0;
}
/**
* rt_refresh_begin - start a refresh cycle
* @t: related routing table
* @ah: related announce hook
*
* This function starts a refresh cycle for given routing table and announce
* hook. The refresh cycle is a sequence where the protocol sends all its valid
* routes to the routing table (by rte_update()). After that, all protocol
* routes (more precisely routes with @ah as @sender) not sent during the
* refresh cycle but still in the table from the past are pruned. This is
* implemented by marking all related routes as stale by REF_STALE flag in
* rt_refresh_begin(), then marking all related stale routes with REF_DISCARD
* flag in rt_refresh_end() and then removing such routes in the prune loop.
*/
void
rt_refresh_begin(rtable *t, struct announce_hook *ah)
{
......@@ -1126,6 +1141,14 @@ rt_refresh_begin(rtable *t, struct announce_hook *ah)
FIB_WALK_END;
}
/**
* rt_refresh_end - end a refresh cycle
* @t: related routing table
* @ah: related announce hook
*
* This function starts a refresh cycle for given routing table and announce
* hook. See rt_refresh_begin() for description of refresh cycles.
*/
void
rt_refresh_end(rtable *t, struct announce_hook *ah)
{
......@@ -1405,6 +1428,19 @@ again:
return 1;
}
/**
* rt_prune_table - prune a routing table
*
* This function scans the routing table @tab and removes routes belonging to
* flushing protocols, discarded routes and also stale network entries, in a
* similar fashion like rt_prune_loop(). Returns 1 when all such routes are
* pruned. Contrary to rt_prune_loop(), this function is not a part of the
* protocol flushing loop, but it is called from rt_event() for just one routing
* table.
*
* Note that rt_prune_table() and rt_prune_loop() share (for each table) the
* prune state (@prune_state) and also the pruning iterator (@prune_fit).
*/
static inline int
rt_prune_table(rtable *tab)
{
......@@ -1415,16 +1451,15 @@ rt_prune_table(rtable *tab)
/**
* rt_prune_loop - prune routing tables
*
* The prune loop scans routing tables and removes routes belonging to
* flushing protocols and also stale network entries. Returns 1 when
* all such routes are pruned. It is a part of the protocol flushing
* loop.
* The prune loop scans routing tables and removes routes belonging to flushing
* protocols, discarded routes and also stale network entries. Returns 1 when
* all such routes are pruned. It is a part of the protocol flushing loop.
*
* The prune loop runs in two steps. In the first step it prunes just
* the routes with flushing senders (in explicitly marked tables) so
* the route removal is propagated as usual. In the second step, all
* remaining relevant routes are removed. Ideally, there shouldn't be
* any, but it happens when pipe filters are changed.
* The prune loop runs in two steps. In the first step it prunes just the routes
* with flushing senders (in explicitly marked tables) so the route removal is
* propagated as usual. In the second step, all remaining relevant routes are
* removed. Ideally, there shouldn't be any, but it happens when pipe filters
* are changed.
*/
int
rt_prune_loop(void)
......
......@@ -51,6 +51,16 @@
* and bgp_encode_attrs() which does the converse. Both functions are built around a
* @bgp_attr_table array describing all important characteristics of all known attributes.
* Unknown transitive attributes are attached to the route as %EAF_TYPE_OPAQUE byte streams.
*
* BGP protocol implements graceful restart in both restarting (local restart)
* and receiving (neighbor restart) roles. The first is handled mostly by the
* graceful restart code in the nest, BGP protocol just handles capabilities,
* sets @gr_wait and locks graceful restart until end-of-RIB mark is received.
* The second is implemented by internal restart of the BGP state to %BS_IDLE
* and protocol state to %PS_START, but keeping the protocol up from the core
* point of view and therefore maintaining received routes. Routing table
* refresh cycle (rt_refresh_begin(), rt_refresh_end()) is used for removing
* stale routes after reestablishment of BGP session during graceful restart.
*/
#undef LOCAL_DEBUG
......@@ -431,6 +441,17 @@ bgp_conn_enter_idle_state(struct bgp_conn *conn)
bgp_conn_leave_established_state(p);
}
/**
* bgp_handle_graceful_restart - handle detected BGP graceful restart
* @p: BGP instance
*
* This function is called when a BGP graceful restart of the neighbor is
* detected (when the TCP connection fails or when a new TCP connection
* appears). The function activates processing of the restart - starts routing
* table refresh cycle and activates BGP restart timer. The protocol state goes
* back to %PS_START, but changing BGP state back to %BS_IDLE is left for the
* caller.
*/
void
bgp_handle_graceful_restart(struct bgp_proto *p)
{
......@@ -448,6 +469,16 @@ bgp_handle_graceful_restart(struct bgp_proto *p)
rt_refresh_begin(p->p.main_ahook->table, p->p.main_ahook);
}
/**
* bgp_graceful_restart_done - finish active BGP graceful restart
* @p: BGP instance
*
* This function is called when the active BGP graceful restart of the neighbor
* should be finished - either successfully (the neighbor sends all paths and
* reports end-of-RIB on the new session) or unsuccessfully (the neighbor does
* not support BGP graceful restart on the new session). The function ends
* routing table refresh cycle and stops BGP restart timer.
*/
void
bgp_graceful_restart_done(struct bgp_proto *p)
{
......@@ -457,6 +488,15 @@ bgp_graceful_restart_done(struct bgp_proto *p)
rt_refresh_end(p->p.main_ahook->table, p->p.main_ahook);
}
/**
* bgp_graceful_restart_timeout - timeout of graceful restart 'restart timer'
* @t: timer
*
* This function is a timeout hook for @gr_timer, implementing BGP restart time
* limit for reestablisment of the BGP session after the graceful restart. When
* fired, we just proceed with the usual protocol restart.
*/
static void
bgp_graceful_restart_timeout(timer *t)
{
......@@ -968,7 +1008,7 @@ bgp_start(struct proto *P)
p->remote_id = 0;
p->source_addr = p->cf->source_addr;
if (P->gr_recovery)
if (p->p.gr_recovery && p->cf->gr_mode)
proto_graceful_restart_lock(P);
/*
......
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